External environment

The business cycle

The financial pressures placed on individuals change over time. This is because they are affected by external circumstances such as high unemployment and the rate of inflation. The business cycle illustrates the scope and size of these changes. UNISON’s There for You aims to support UNISON members throughout the phases...
Marketing

Aldi in the news

In 2012 supermarket Aldi has reported a UK pre-tax profits surge of 124% to £157.9 million. Aldi has continued to grow in the UK opening 34 new stores, with another 50 new stores planned in 2013. It also attracted a million more shoppers through its doors. Neil Saunders, managing director...
External environment

PEST analysis

Johnson Matthey is a leading global speciality chemicals company. Science and technology are embedded in everything that it does. To remain competitive in its fast-paced industries, Johnson Matthey uses a PEST analysis to monitor changes in its external environment that will have an impact on its operations. PEST analysis looks...
People

Managing change

Change is something that happens in businesses all of the time. Change can occur in an organisation’s internal or external environment. As a result, this process of change is constant. Change management looks at the drivers of change in the business environment. The Chartered Management Institute (CMI) supports the development...
Strategy

Sectors of industry

Lafarge operates in all three sectors of its industry, extracting raw materials, manufacturing finished goods and providing sales and after-sales service for customers. In this way, Lafarge is able to take control of and manage not just operational efficiencies but also quality, health and safety and its impact on the...
Marketing

Market research

Market research involves the capture and analysis of consumer, competitor and market trend data. JD (part of JD Sports Fashion PLC), the UK’s leading retailer of fashionable sports and leisure wear, uses market research to support and develop its business. It enables JD to assess more accurately the level of...
Operations

Research and development

As the world's leading semiconductor intellectual property (IP) supplier, ARM is a business focused on research & development (R&D). Mobile phones, tablet computers, washing machines and network routers all use ARM technology. ARM relies on the high levels of creativity, innovation and knowledge of its people to continue to develop...
Marketing

Marketing mix

The National Trust is a registered charity. Every year it welcomes around 19 million visitors to its properties and special places, which are open to everyone. The Trust uses a variety of messages and communication channels to promote the work that it does. The marketing mix (the four Ps) is...
People

Training and development

Aldi is a leading retailer with over 8,000 stores worldwide. It continues to expand in Europe, North America and Australia. Aldi places great importance on how it trains and develops its employees. Training is the process of providing employees with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform their tasks and...
Strategy

Growth

Choosing the right business strategy can give a company a competitive advantage over its rivals. A strategy is a plan to meet business objectives. A strategy needs to set the scope and direction of a company. Bibby Line Group has extended its scope to branch out into new products and...
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